Report of the President of UKE on the state of postal services market in Poland in 2012.
The postal services market in Poland opened up to competition in recent years. The area reserved for the public operator was gradually reduced (in 2006-2012 it included postal items up to 50 g), and at the same time market competition increased. The date of opening the market was defined in the so-called 3rd Postal Directive of 2008. It was set on 31 December 2010 with the possibility of postponing to the end of 2012, which Poland chose to do.
By the end of 2012, the register of postal operators by President of UKE listed 267 entities other than the public operator, Poczta Polska S.A. However, not all of these registered operators were actively operating in the postal market. According to the submitted reports, there were 153 private operators operating in 2012.
The public operator, who in 2012 completed more than 2.0 billion postal services in domestic and foreign traffic, which resulted in more than 4.7 billion PLN revenue, remains a major player in the postal market. This volume of services included almost 1.4 billion universal postal services, which generated nearly 4.0 billion PLN revenue. In contrast, in 2012 private operators provided almost 3.2 billion postal services in domestic and foreign traffic, which resulted in nearly 1.6 billion PLN revenue.
In assessing the importance of opening up the market for its development, one cannot ignore the question of the size of the reserved area, which was established to fund the obligation to provide universal postal services imposed on the public operator. In the years 2006–2012, this area accounted for over 70% of the total market for postal services (excluding unaddressed mail) and generated approximately 50% of revenue. Hence, it was an attractive part of the market, but it should be noted that the senders of postal items weighing up to 50 g are primarily large companies (banks, telecoms, gas and electricity companies, etc.) and they contain bills, invoices, statements, etc. Since such documents are increasingly being sent via electronic means of communication, this market segment is going to be progressively reduced and lose its appeal.
The area of traditional parcel services and courier services, on the other hand, has developing potential. However, until now it was difficult to assess because the Postal Act that was in effect until the end of 2012 defined a parcel as a service by the public provider, Poczta Polska. Therefore virtually every year the phenomenon of 'displacement' of a part of postal services to the sector of transport services occurred. There was no definition of a courier service either.
Given the date of market opening, it was necessary to pass a new Postal Act implementing the provisions of the Third Postal Directive by the end of 2012. This was also important because of the need to sort out the legal environment in which postal operators operate (e.g. the normalisation of terms such as a postal parcel or a courier service). The new act, which was passed on 23 November 2012, should provide a more precise legal framework for the functioning of the postal market in Poland and give operators conditions for fair competition in the market, which is now free, and give consumers access to postal services with high quality and reasonable prices.
The report on the state of the postal market for the year 2012 has been prepared in accordance with Article 43.6 of the Postal Act of 23 November 2012 (Journal of Laws of 2012, item 1529) on the basis of information obtained from postal operators in accordance with Article 44.1 and 44.2 of the Postal Act of 12 June 2003 (consolidated text in the Journal of Laws of 2008 No. 189, item 1159, as amended) in connection with Article 185 of the Postal Act of 23 November 2012. These provisions required the postal operators to submit to the President of the Office of Electronic Communications reports of postal activities carried out in 2012.
The full text of the Report is available in the attached file.